The Aśan Conjugation

 

The verbs in Aczu Śavnecze are categorized into four groups, and can be conjugated by seven tenses and three numbers.

The benefactive/malefactive trigger is an affix bound either to the agent or patient head.

The benefactive can be translated as « the action is done to the advantage of the trigger bearer », and the malefactive can be translated as « the action is done to the detriment of the trigger bearer » (whether it's the agent or the patient). By default, we use the benefactive emitter (=prefix) attached to the agent to be neutral, to get a sentence where the focus is on the action itself and not its consequences.

All verbs that are not ditransitive are ambitransitive. That means all those verbs can be used with or without a patient group (if the verb is semantically transitive, the patient is the same as the previous sentence, implied. For example, « I dropped my ball. I pick up » : we understand that I'm picking up the ball).

The attribute of a stative verb is always considered as a patient group, even if it's a single adjective. What's more, the particle (of, to) of an indirect object is always implied.

The pronouns

In Aczu Śavnecze, there are quite a large personnal pronouns inventory, but the verbs only inflects depending on the tense and number. That's why they can't be omitted like in Spanish. Here they are :

Pronoun Singular Dual Trial
1ˢᵗ Za (me/us) Inclusive dual Exclusive dual Ca (me and these two)
Qa (me and you) Ka (me and them)
2ⁿᵈ Fe (you) Te (you and me/us) Szew (you and them) Ce (you and them two)
3ʳᵈ Ru (them) Pu (her/him and them) Cuć (someone, unknown) Duȷc (nobody)
Other Śe (universal truth) Luń (someone else, identified)

(To mean "you, me and someone else", we'll use the trial phrase Sze zawe)

  • The genitive is formed by adding an –ı at the end of the pronoun (except luń that becomes lunı).
  • The switch-reference pronoun is formed by gemination (except luń and duȷc that become lıluń and duduȷc).

 

The groups

1ˢᵗ group

The 1ˢᵗ group verbs, also know as monovocalic verbs, are the most regular : they all have a monosyllabic root that starts and ends with a consonnant, with a single vowel in the middle. Their infinitive form is simply this root, with nothing else.

We conjugate them simply by adding the appropriated tense ending to the root, without any inflection.

  • The benefactive trigger is marked with ı⁽ᶜ⁾–*–⁽ᶜ⁾e.
  • The malefactive trigger is marked with u⁽ᶜ⁾–*–⁽ᶜ⁾u.

(With ⁽ᶜ⁾ representing the first or the last consonant of the verbal root)

Example :
Luń szıpamdph, qa uchuchuczdph phvćta, uqaqa depań.
 ,   ,  .
['lõ t͡si.pam'top͡ɸ qa u.xu.xu.t͡ʃo'top͡ɸ p͡ɸo.βoʎ'ta u.qa'qa te'pɑ̃]
other think₁-DU.PRE 12DU MAL₁-be.able.do₂-DU.FUT this MAL₂-12DU.SW never
They don't think we'll be able to do it.

 

2ⁿᵈ group

The 2ⁿᵈ group verbe are the verbs with a two-syllable root. The infinitive form ends with –ń᪻, that is always removed before adding the tense suffix.

If the root ends with a vowel that is not –ı and the tense begins with another vowel too, we add a –q at the end of the root, for every tenses (else, the ı become ȷ).

  • The benefactive trigger is marked with u⁽ᶜ⁾–*–(t)e.
  • The malefactive trigger is marked with sz⁽ⱽ⁾–*–(ń)k.

(With ⁽ᶜ⁾ and ⁽ᵛ⁾ representig resp. the first consonant or the first vowel of the verbal root)

Example :
Szeza telpuńc ph knćthdfeı, ph tıźafeı, ph vśesfupuf fumıczufeȷve.
   ,  ,   .
['t͡se.za tel'põʃ p͡ɸo ko.noʎθ.to'ɸej p͡ɸo ti.ɮa'ɸej p͡ɸo βo.ɬes.ɸu'puɸ ɸu.mi.t͡ʃu.ɸej'βe]
MAL-1S need DEF.ART shoe.DU-2S.GEN DEF.ART clothes-2S.GEN DEF.ART mechanical horse-2S.GEN-and
« I'll need your boots, your clothes, and your bike (mechanical horse) » – Terminator.

 

3ʳᵈ group

The 3ʳᵈ group verbs are the verbs with a three-syllable long roots that starts with a consonant. Their infinitive form is their root with the middle syllable inverted.

If the root ends with a vowel that is not –ı and the tense begins with another vowel too, we add a –m at the end of the root for the pasts and present, and –(ń)m for the futures.

  • The benefactive trigger is marked with e⁽ᶜ⁾–*–(d)u.
  • The malefactive trigger is marked with a⁽ᶜ⁾–*–(l)a.

(With ⁽ᶜ⁾ representing the first consonant of the verbal root)

Example :
Nefe chupćesmeram ?
  ?
[↗ 'ne.ɸe xu.poʎ.es.me'ram]
Q-BE-2S do.magic-SG.PRE
Do you do magic ?

 

4ᵗʰ group

The 4ᵗʰ group verbes are all the ones that doesn't belong to the other groupes (three syllables with an initial vowel, or more than three syllables-long). They can be recognizable by their infinitive form that ends with –dr, that is removed before adding the tense suffix, except for the past tenses.

If the root ends with a vowel that is not –ı and the tense begins with another vowel too, we add a –cz at the end of the root for the present and futures.

  • The benefactive trigger is marked with e⁽ᶜ⁾–*–⁽ᶜ⁾ı.
  • The malefactive trigger is marked with l(ı)–*–ph.

(With ⁽ᶜ⁾ representing the first or the last consonant of the verbal root)

Example :
Luń eczulathańczamdph ksuzucqaȷph !
   !
['lõ e.t͡ʃu.la.θɑ̃.t͡ʃam'top͡ɸ ku.zuʃ 'qajp͡ɸ]
other come-DU.PRE place.DIR-12DU.GEN-MAL
Damn, they're coming over here !

 

Switch verbs

The switch verbs are verbs which group changes depending on the trigger factor. It's always 1ˢᵗ/3ʳᵈ or 2ⁿᵈ/4ᵗʰ pairs, the switch corresponding to benefactive/malefactive. Else, they don't have anything special. Often, it's roots that became irregular due to a derived version (ex : śes « be », derived into śeshıme « exist »).

(A 2/4 verb in the past tense with a malefactive trigger will see a –dr– appearing between its root and its ending)

Examples :
Fe śesucı avıpur.
  .
['ɸe ɬes.u'ci a.βi'pu]
2S be-SG.RFUT MAL-snake
You'll become a terrible snake.            


Lıru rınmıdram pns ph qnruı.
    .
['li.ru rin.mi'tram pons p͡ɸo.qon'ruj]
MAL-3S bleed-SG.PRE for DEF.ART death-3S.GEN
They're bleeding to death.

 

The moods

Aczu Śavnecze doesn't have specific inflections for grammatical moods, but reuse the existing structures in a specific way, like how auxiliaries act like standard verbs in English. Here's how they are rendered :

  • Conditional : an adverbial subordinate in past (in the future) with the conjunction athe to indicate the condition, and the principal sentence in future (in the past) to indicate the consequence.
  • Subjunctive : an adverbial subordinate with a probability adverb after the switch-reference pronoun.
  • Imperative : a simple future in the past sentence, that may start and/or end with a courtesy depending on the meant goal (00=strict order, 01=formal command, 10=asking, 11=wishing).
    • The different courtesy proclitics are : zelp « I need », afı « please » or dzańzu « I beg you ».
    • The sole courtesy enclitic is : szrśı « thanks ».

 

The tenses

There are three types of grammatical tenses :

  • The simple tenses allows to situate an event in the timeline.
  • The anterior tenses allows to situate an event that (is meant to have) happened before a specific time reference (told or implied), usually leading to this one.
  • The posterior tenses allows to situate an event that (had) happen(ed) after a specific time reference (told or implied), usually due to this one.

The simple tenses are marked with a single syllable, that changes depending on the number, the anterior tenses are these same syllables nasalized, and the posterior tenses are the same palatalized. For the verbs not from the first group and which root ends with a vowel (except –ı(ń) that becomes –ȷ), we add the following consonant to link it :

  • 2ⁿᵈ group : –q.
  • 3ʳᵈ group : –m for the pasts and present, –ńm for the futures.
  • 4ᵗʰ group : –cz for the present and the futures, and we keep –dr for the pasts.

 

  Remote Past Past Future in Past Present Past in Future Future Remote Future
Singular –el –eńl –elı –am –uc –uńc –ucı
Dual –eldph –eńldph –ıldph –amdph –uczdph –uńczdph –ȷucdph
Trial –elqe –eńlqe –elkȷe –aqa –uśu –uńśu –ȷuśu