The Ámérizkunxa Phonology
    [ðiː ə'mɛ.ɹɪs.kʊn.t͡ʃə fəˈnɒ.lə.dʒi]

Vowels :

Ámérizkunxa has 8 vocal phonemes (plus 2 allophones).

Consonants :

Ámérizkunxa has 25 consonants (plus 3 allophones).

  Bilabial Labio-
Dental
Dental Alveolar Palato-
Alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Labio-
Velar
Uvular
(and Glottal)
Nasal m     n     ɲ      
Stop p         b     t        d   ʈ          ɖ   k      g   ʔ
Affricate       t͡s t͡ʃ          
Fricative   f θ s        z ʒ ʂ   x ʁ
Approximant             j   ʀ
Lateral approximant       l            
Ejective           ʈ’        

1. Only in the diphtongs /ew/ and /ow/.

Orthography-phonology matching :

IPA Ámérizkunxa Equivalence in english/spanish/german
/a/ a Like : cat
/ɶ/ a (after a stop and
before a final consonant)
Like : Hölle
/ɛ/ e Like : lend
/e/ ę Like : say
/i/ i Like : see
/ɔ/ o Like : lot
/ə/ o (final) Like : atom
/oː/ ǫ Like : board
/y/ ų Like : über
/u/ u Like : pour
 
/m/ m Like : matter
/n/ n Like : noodle
/ɲ/ nn Like : eñe
/p/ p Like : pain
/b/ b Like : bus
/t/ t Like : tall
/ʈ / tt /t/ with the tongue rolled back
/ʈ’/ ť Retroflex ejective stop
/d/ d - j (initial and before a-o-ų) Like : date
/ɖ / dd /d/ with the tongue rolled back
/k/ k Like : coin
/g/ g Like : go
/t͡s/ tz Like : tsar
/t͡ʃ/ x Like : chair
/θ/ fs - f (final) Like : think
/f/ f Like : fall
/s/ z Like : star
/z/ ƶ Like : zebra
/ʂ/ s Like : sure, /ʃ/ with the tongue rolled back
/ʒ/ ʒ Like : pleasure
/x/ h - j (not initial nor before a-o-ų) Like : Achtung !
/j/ y Like : yacht
/l/ l Like : leave
/ʁ/ r Like : Lehrer
/ʀ/ rr Like : rauchen
/xʷ/ ju Like : Juan
/ʔ/ (before initial vowel) Like : Uh⁃oh ! (Glottal stop)
/w/ (u between ę-ǫ and a consonant) Like : power

Tones and their genders

Ámérizkunxa is a pitch accent language with two tones :

  • The default low tone, unmarked, is used for terrestrial nouns, divided into animate gender and inanimate gender roots, including most physical and psychological (but not spiritual) concepts.
  • The high tone, marked with an acute accent on every vowel, is used for "divine" gender nouns, that includes superior beings, natural phenomenons like the weather or stellar objects, and high honorifics.

A word can be built with both high and low tone roots, but its gender (and sometimes meaning) is determined by the tone of its final vowel. For example the language name Ámérizkunxa is composed by Áméx « Dreamgod » + hizkunxa « language ». The theme (head) is Áméx because if of divine essence, but what is referred to is a language, which is an animate gender noun, so the final -a keeps the low tone of hizkunxa. Complementary examples would be lagiƶ « worker »  + lúrá « earth »  which give lagizyúra « farmer » (a kind of worker, terrestrial animate, so lúrá loses its final high tone), or the other way round, shá « fire » + etzyo « home » which give sháytzyó « residential fire » (a kind of fire, divine, so etzyo gets a final high tone).

Phonotactics, allophony and reparations

Vowels :

  • Only six vowel pairs (in green) cannot be reduced. In these cases, not only both vowels are fully pronounced, but the ‹u/ų› cannot be affected by any allophonic rule, that is channeled to the other vowel.
  • Two vowel pairs (in blue) have their ‹u› reduced into a [w]. It's considered as a voiced glide like /l/.
  • If the diphtong include a weak vowel (‹i› < ‹u› < ‹e›), it becomes a ‹y› /j/.
  • If it only includes strong vowels (‹o› < ‹ǫ› < ‹ę› < ‹ų› < ‹a›), the weakest is deleted.
  i u e o ǫ ę ų a
i yi yu ye yo ya
u uy u ye yo ya
e ey eu e yo ya
o oy oy oy o ǫ ę ų a
ǫ ǫy ǫu ǫy ǫ ǫ ę ų a
ę ęy ęu ęy ę ę ę ęų a
ų ųy ųy ųe ų ųǫ ų ų ųa
a ay au ay a a a a a

The only triphtongs allowed are eua, aua, eue, auę, euo and auǫ. Here, ‹u› is not reduced, and remains a full /u/.

When another triphong is to be formed by a merging :

  • If it can be made possible by changing the aperture of the third vowel (for euę, aue, euǫ and auo), we do so.
  • If the third vowel is weak (‹i›-‹u›-‹e›), it's reduced into ‹y› /j/. It's a final lenition.
  • If the third vowel is strong, we add an ‹m› before it. It's a relabialization.

Consonants :

  • A ‹j› becomes ‹h› in initial position and before –a, –o and –ų to represent the phoneme /x/. Used in these positions, ‹j› replaces ‹d› to represent the phoneme /d/. So the opposite of hedihad /xɛdixad/ would be jejijaj /dɛxidax/.
    Example : arraj which becomes arraha in the 1SD present.
  • A final ‹f› takes a –s when a vowel is suffixed to it, to keep the phoneme /θ/.
    Example : potęnf, which becomes potęnfsi in the 1ST present.
  • If we suffix a word ending with a voiced consonant followed by a vowel different than ‹a›, and that the addition of this suffix won't lead to a consonant triphtong, then the vowel is deleted.
    Example : mendekaldǫ « revenge » gives mendekaldil « avenger » and mendekaldilpul « revengefully », but mendekaldǫgin « take revenge », and temendekaldǫgin « avenge someone ».
  • If we suffix a ‹x› /tʃ/ with a consonant, the ‹x› becomes ‹ť›, that is /ʈ’/.
    Example : áméx, which becomes áméťk in plural form.
  • If a voiced consonant (except ‹l›, ‹m› and ‹n›) in followed by an unvoiced consonant, it becomes unvoiced.
    Example : lagiƶ + (s)há gives lagizha.
  • If an unvoiced consonant is followed by the matching voiced consonant, the latter is deleted.
    Example : ʒúh + –rV give ʒúhú, not ʒúhrú.
  • If ‹x› /tʃ/ is the root final phoneme, follows a vowel and is suffixed with another vowel, that ‹x› becomes ‹r›, that is /ʁ/, and then can undergo the rules applying to ‹r›.
    Example : áméx, which becomes ámér– in ámérizkunxa.
  • If a ‹ť› precedes or follows a voiced consonant, this one becomes unvoiced. If it's impossible (with ‹l›, ‹m› or ‹n›), a linking -u- must be added. The indirect unvoicing of ‹ʒ› /ʒ/ is ‹s› /ʂ/ and for ‹r› /ʁ/ it's ‹h› (or ‹j›) /x/.
    Example : amex + gauzt give ameťkauzt(o).
  • If a ‹r› /ʁ/ ends up between two vowels, including an ‹a› :
    • If the other vowel is also an ‹a›, of the ‹a› is after the -r- that follows an ‹o› or an ‹e›, it becomes ‹rr› /ʀ/.
      Example : (amex + -au >) amer + -au > amerrau.
    • If the previous consonant becomes voiced (except ‹l›-‹m›-‹n›), it becomes ‹l› /l/.
      Example : pegar, which becomes pegali in the 1ST present.
    • If the previous consonant is unvoiced, it becomes ‹y› /j/ except if the other vowel is an –i.
      Example : latar, which becomes latayu in the reflexive 3ST present.
    • Else, it doesn't change. Example : latari.
  • If an ‹s› /ʂ/ ends up between two vowels, including an ‹a›, it becomes ‹ʒ› /ʒ/.
    Example : ųťs (ųťisi), which becomes ųťiʒá in the 1SD present.
  • If a ‹ƶ› /z/ ends up before an –l /l/, they turn into the digraph ‹zy› /sj/.
    Example : lagiƶ + lúrá give lagizyúra.
  • If a verb has its stem ending with –d /d/ or –t /t/, they will become –dd /ɖ / or –tt /ʈ / when conjugated. It can happen with –r /ʁ/ becoming –rr /ʀ/, and –n /n/ becoming –nn /ɲ/, but not predictably. This gemination phenomenon will be indicated with "₂" (2) in dictionaries.
    Example : ozot₂, which becomes ozotti in the 1ST present.
  • If a ‹nn› is followed by a stop, it becomes ‹n›, and the stop becomes voiced. Special cases : ‹ť› becomes ‹d›, ‹tz› becomes ‹›, and ‹x› becomes ‹›.
    Examples : mennǫ + –te give mende ; anno + xuri give andʒuri.
  • If a consonant triphtong should appear when merging two roots, then we duplicate the first vowel of the first root between them.
    Example : egun + zkal give egunezkal(a).