The Aśan Syntax


The simple sentence

Unfortunately, one wolf ate the ship.

The simple sentence is made of a agent group, a verb, and most of the time a patient group.

   • The agent group is the one that acts or that is in the state described.
   • The verb describes the action or the state of the agent.
   • The patient group is the one that undergo the action, or that is the abovementionned state.

In Aczu Śavnecze, they always are in that order. However, there's a single, small movable part in the sentence that completely change the focus and of the speaker : the trigger.

There are four types of triggers, for a total of eight possible combinations. In this first example sentence, the trigger used is the malefactive emitter agentive trigger. It means that the action is a bad action of the agent towards the patient. By eating it, the wolf acted badly towards that sheep.

(NB : The benefactive and malefactive triggers both work the same way, so four examples will be enough)

    One poor wolf ate the sheep.

In that second example, the trigger is the malefactive receptor agentive trigger. It means that the action has bad consequences on the agent. By eating that sheep, the wolf became an enemy for the shepherd.

Unfortunately, the sheep was eaten by one wolf.

Duuuh, what happened here ? The sentence hasn't changed so much, but it became… passive ? Indeed.

By attaching the trigger to the patient, here a malefactive emitter patientive trigger, your sentence become passive. No need to revert it as in English, or other fancy metamorphosis.

The meaning of the sentence, though similar to the first example, has a twist : the misfortune is due to the sheep. It will probably end the same way as right before, the sheperd hunting down that one wolf to kill it. But the speaker blames the sheep in that story. The wolf is hunted down because he ate this damn sheep.

The poor sheep was eaten by one wolf.

The last form of this sentence is the one using a malefactive receptor patientive trigger. In that case, the speaker focuses on the misfortune experienced by the eaten sheep. Less matters what has been done, the fact is, that unfortunate sheep is dead.

(NB : The default trigger, when you don't want to focus on anything, is the benefactive emitter agentive trigger)


The complex sentence

What is a complex sentence ? Short answer : everything that is not a simple sentence.

Not so longer answer : a sentence with more than one agent group involved. That doesn't mean it has to involve more than one conjugated verb, or even different actions. « He talked about that ship you stole together » and « I want you to understand me » are both complex sentences. Here's that second example :

             I want you to understand me.

That is how you you deal with relative subordinates. As you can see, the benefactive emitter patientive trigger of the verb dzeduwn « want » is attached to the verb of the subordinate. Here, coincidently, both triggers are benefactives and related to a 3rd group verb (dzeduwn, and lecıkıp «understand ») so it's basically the same. That's why the first trigger will always be an emitter trigger attached to the second verb.
Aczu Śavnecze is difficult, but mostly regular.

As for adverbial subordinates, you have to put it between commas, between the verb and a switch-reference to the agent of the subordinate as the patient of the main proposition :

One never wakes the wolf who sleeps.

Literally translated, the sentence would rather be « Nobody ever wakes, the wolf sleeps, it ». That pronoun ru « he, she, it » is geminated because that's how you form the switch-reference (and it will refer to the previous agent in the sentence), and it can freely bear the benefactive (here, neutral) receptor patientive trigger of the main verb chupruńdurś « wake ».